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    网络暴力游戏成瘾的心理机制探析

    出处:论文网
    时间:2019-09-27

    网络暴力游戏成瘾的心理机制探析

      2018年2月央视新闻频道重点报道了网络暴力游戏盛行对青少年的危害,“绝地求生”“公主生小孩”“地下城勇士”等游戏被称为网络暴力游戏,“以互联网技术为平台,借助各种媒介形式,以打斗、凶杀等为主要内容,众多参与者同时参加的互动游戏”。有调查显示七成左右青少年乃至大学生的网络娱乐,主要是网络游戏,而网络游戏中80%都与暴力攻击和血腥有关[1]。长时间沉溺于网络游戏对青少年的生理和心理将产生严重的负面影响,可导致“精神麻醉”。2018年2月,湖南15岁少年沉迷网络暴力游戏而杀死22岁女邻居的事件,已是血淋淋的事实。2017年11月,世界卫生组织披露,将把游戏障碍(主要是游戏成瘾)与合成毒品等一起,列入物质使用及成瘾行为障碍。网络游戏成瘾,特别是青少年和大学生,沉迷网络游戏、暴力游戏,因此荒废学业、网络成瘾、手机依赖、人际暴力、脱离社会,对学业发展、人际关系、身心健康造成负面影响,其中网络暴力游戏成瘾容易引起网络依赖、道德失范和攻击性行为。国家要求部分视频网站全面下线涉及青少年网络暴力的游戏产品等,以减少网络暴力游戏对青少年身心造成的负面影响。

      1、网络暴力游戏成瘾的心理机制探析

      ①角色内化与身份认同:网络暴力游戏通过角色扮演完成,游戏者在游戏过程中自觉内化角色功能,使用攻击伤害技能,特别是生活化的角色,更容易让游戏者产生角色认同,以至于将游戏与现实相混淆,也容易将游戏中的功能在生活中进行试验。在游戏中给予惩罚措施的游戏者,在现实中也更倾向于给予严厉惩罚,存在内隐和外显攻击。有研究发现,对于媒体中的暴力角色产生认同的观众随后暴力倾向的增加要显著高于没有对暴力角色发生认同的观众;②动作模仿与行为强化:青少年缺乏更全面的辨识能力,网络暴力游戏攻击后给予奖励,是在游戏中刺激和鼓励游戏者进行伤害行为,重复的伤害操作本身是一种强化,动作的重复,血液的喷射,团队的胜利都是行为模仿的心理强化。根据部分网络上伤人事件的报道可知,青少年实施犯罪的重要原因来源于网络模仿,模仿网络角色行为,进行偷盗、伤人、强奸等行为,使游戏情景进入生活。不合理的奖励设置更是强化了攻击行为,攻击可以得到奖赏,与法律和现实中的攻击会得到惩罚,形成了背道而驰的理念,作用也将相反;③情感宣泄与体验增强:网络暴力游戏容易造成攻击性行为增加,暴力情绪和态度激惹,这是游戏符合常规的身心反映。也有研究表明自知力较强,性格完善的游戏者,暴力射击游戏等并不会让他们成瘾,也并不会在现实中增加攻击性行为,反而只是他们休闲娱乐的放松方式之一,在游戏的过程中可以实现不良情绪的宣泄,游戏群体友谊的升华,操作技能的提升,甚至达到自我满足的愉悦。心理咨询过程中情绪宣泄的“假人”游戏,其实也是一个道理,通过攻击假人,实现情绪宣泄,“假人”模型本身也是角色扮演;④死亡本能与自我实现:有研究显示,暴力游戏成瘾并不一定就引起攻击性行为,引起攻击性行为的可能是人们的死亡本能,人人都有攻击的欲望,都有伤害别人的冲动,只是平时受到社会规则和道德法律约束,人们将行为进行升华为可以被社会接受和认可的活动。游戏者在游戏的过程中也能达到自我实现,通过角色扮演,完成了既定游戏,取得胜利,也是通过游戏实现自我的方式。特别是生活中没有目标,缺乏动力的个体,更容易在网络上找到归宿,进而实现虚无的自我实现。自我实现是一个人保持动力的源泉,也是成瘾的因素,是保持行为持续的方式。

      2、网络暴力游戏成瘾的心理学行动指南

      ①降低强化和实现脱敏:网络暴力游戏的不断模仿,增加了攻击性的可能,减少强化可以降低角色内化和身份认同,长期接触暴力电子游戏会导致个体产生一定的道德歪曲,表现出对暴力的脱敏,从而导致个体产生相对强烈的攻击性。一是从源头上减少网络暴力游戏,特别是针对青少年的网络暴力游戏,需要政、企、校合力,约束暴力游戏进校园、进手机、进市场。二是家长加强监管,减少游戏接触时间和情景卷入程度,实现成瘾的系统脱敏。减少青少年使用电子设备的时间,消除含有暴力网络游戏的教育APP,掌握戒断网络暴力游戏的脱敏方法,能及时减少网络游戏伤害;②增强法制和理想教育:法制教育是游戏者的知识内化,有强烈法制意识的游戏者,能够分清游戏与生活的边界,不会轻易尝试游戏场景和增加暴力攻击行为。理想信念教育是防止网络暴力游戏成瘾的“开关”,有崇高理想和时间观念的人不会将精力过多地投入到游戏之中,帮助游戏者树立崇高的理想和人生目标,是帮助他们有效管理时间的方式。法制教育是底线,理想教育是上线,守住底线,提高上线,促进网民形成积极向上的网络价值观;③健全人格和生活方式:人格对游戏者有着深远影响,不同的人格特质对游戏的卷入程度有差异,不健全的人格更容易沉溺于游戏和产生攻击性行为。健康的生活方式也是远离网络暴力游戏成瘾和攻击行为的需要。国家正在营造风清气正的网络环境,以培养新时代网络新青年、好网民和网络新人为己任,网民也应积极向好网民的标准靠近,减少网络暴力游戏对自身的伤害。

    网络暴力游戏成瘾的心理机制探析

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