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    粮食工程专业导论课程的构建与实践

    出处:论文网
    时间:2019-09-12

    粮食工程专业导论课程的构建与实践

      一、开设专业导论课程的目的

      2018年吉林省的高等教育毛入学率达到58.5%,已经进入高等教育普及化阶段。进入高校校园的学生人数越来越多,大学生的个体素质差异也越来越大,在这种情况下,很多大学新生都对所学专业不太了解,既不明白自己学习的专业“是什么”,也不清楚自己学习的专业“有什么用”。专业导论是面向大学新生的一门专业入门课程,在进入专业课程学习之前,旨在帮助学生理解本专业的目标和要求,概述核心思想、课程结构、方法,培养和激发学生的专业兴趣和学习热情,介绍与学习者未来职业的关系等的引导课程。[1]

      但是,通过查阅文献结合本专业实践,发现导论课程存在着以下问题:教学模式单一,多采用传统“教师讲、学生听”的教学模式;缺乏实践教学部分;对整个学习过程的监控较弱;学生零基础且主动学习意识不强等。

      二、粮食工程导论课程的定位与内容设置

      (一)粮食工程导论课程的定位

      粮食工程导论课程是粮食工程专业的先导课程,是为剛刚进入学校的一年级新生准备的。这是一门引领学生步入粮食专业领域、了解粮食工程专业的基础性课程。该课程的目的是让刚进入大学不久的一年级学生了解培养学习兴趣,引导学生设计其发展方向。通过该课程的学习,能了解粮食工业发展概况,使学生获得粮食工程专业必要的基本理论、基本知识和基本技能,为今后的专业学习打下一定的基础。

      (二)粮食工程专业导论课程的容设置

      本校粮食工程专业在2015年版本人才培养方案中设置24学时的粮食工程导论课程,课程安排在第二学期。

      (1)认识学校、了解专业。由于中学教育中对职业规划的引导不够充分或是专业调剂原因,很多进入大学的新生往往对学校对所学专业缺乏了解,不知道自己要学什么,学习课程有什么用。专业导论是帮助学生认识学校、了解办学条件和专业情况的课程。通过对学校历史沿革、专业背景、专业培养目标的介绍,新生对本专业的国内外发展概况及本专业与相关学科或专业的关系、本专业的定位及相关行业的发展状况、本专业的人才培养模式与培养目标、本专业的教学资源、深造的通道、就业前景及本行业所需的工程素质等有所了解。[2]

      (2)课程体系解读。课程体系由一个专业所设置的课程相互间的分工与配合构成,解读课程体系能够使学生正确认识基础课、专业基础课和专业课之间的关系,熟悉选修课设置的意义及其选课操作模式。[3]课程体系的解读可以使学生了解大学四年需要“学什么”,能帮助学生了解本专业应掌握的基本知识结构和制定学习规划,为新生的学习起到良好的导向作用。

      (3)专业知识概述。粮食工程导论课程的教学目的不是让学生掌握很多粮食工程具体的专业知识,而是通过本课程介绍粮食工程的专业术语,了解粮食的定义,初步了解粮食科学和工程技术基础的基本知识框架,了解粮食加工工艺技术的研究、粮食质量安全研究、粮食储藏和流通等。

      三、粮食工程导论课程的实践探索

      (一)微课

      微课是指以视频为主要载体、时长一般控制在15分钟以内,有明确的教学目标、内容短小、集中说明一个问题、面向学生学习的课程元素。2017年粮食工程导论为加强课程建设,实现导论课程教学模式创新,申报粮食工程导论微课建设。

      粮食工程导论微课是课程的重要组成部分,按导论课程内容由若干微课要素组成。粮食工程导论每次微课只讲述一个教学知识点或解决一个问题,供学生自主学习使用。粮食工程导论微课选择学生学习过程中的重点、难点录制微课,学生通过阅读、自主学习就能理解的内容不录制微课。

      (二)翻转课堂

      翻转课堂是指重新调整课堂内外的时间,将学习的决定权从教师转移给学生。它具有教学信息清晰明确、重新建构学习流程的特点。翻转课堂是一种在互联网支持下打破时空壁垒,让学生能选择最适合自己的学习方式。粮食工程导论课程将课程内容中难点、重点通过微课进行课前信息传递,教师将录制好的视频传给学生供学生学习,并留下思考题目。在课堂上,教师和学生进行互动、探究、解决问题。粮食工程导论课选择12学时的教学内容,通过翻转课堂微课这种形式来实现,解决零基础学生在学习涵盖专业知识的专业导论课程缺乏学习兴趣的问题。

      (三)蓝墨云班课平台

      蓝墨云班课是由一款利用移动智能设备开展课堂内外即时反馈互动教学的云服务平台。粮食工程导论课程采用这一平台进行课前、课中、课后各环节设计。课前利用平台“资源库”功能进行粮食工程导论微课的课前推送。课中以“投票问卷”“测试”“课堂抢答”“小组评议”等功能进行师生互动、解决学生的问题。

      (四)与专业认识实习相结合

      粮食工程专业将专业导论课和认识实习安排在同一学期,前8周学习专业导论课程,第10周进行专业认识实习。通过这种延伸将专业导论课与认识实习有效衔接,强化学生学习兴趣。专业导论课程的专业介绍、专业知识概述与参观粮食工程相关实验室、实训车间(稻谷加工工艺车间、油脂加工平台)、粮食企业实习就业基地有机衔接,为专业导论课起到良好的扩展与促进作用。

      四、结语

      进入高等教育普及化阶段,大学生的个体素质差异越来越大,如何帮助大学新生快速适应大学环境,朝着自身的职业目标奋斗,无疑是高校必须担负起来的重要职责。通过运用现代化教学手段,利用移动互联网云服务平台,以翻转课堂微课的形式充分发挥专业导论课程的重要引导作用。学生通过专业导论课程的学习,能明确专业性质、专业内容、就业规划等一系列问题,尽快适应大学学习和生活。

    粮食工程专业导论课程的构建与实践

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