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    多用户多天线FDD下行系统中空时码研究

    出处:论文网
    时间:2019-07-24

    多用户多天线FDD下行系统中空时码研究

      0 引言

      在无线通信领域,多项研究表明多用户多天线系统能明显提高频谱效率,实现高容量的最佳接收。从信息论的观点看,单用户信道容量的研究已趋于成熟,其中包括单天线系统以及多天线的多输入多输出(Multiple input Multiple output, MIMO)系统。多用户多天线系统因其信道复杂性,容量分析具有重要研究价值。在文献[1-2]中,针对多用户信道容量方向的研究有较为全面的综述。实际上在收发双方均知道信道状态信息的情况下,能使用脏纸编码技术达到其容量域[3]。文献[4]给出了在两个用户的场景下,脏纸编码技术能达到的容量域就是下行多用户MIMO信道的容量域证明。然而,脏纸编码算法具有较高的复杂度,故实用性不高。另一方面,要使发送端和接收端完全知道信道状态信息是难以实现的。所以,普遍的做法是通过有限反馈技术[5-9]使发送端获得不完善的信道状态信息实现预编码技术。其中,预编码码本的设计基于最小化最大码本矢量距离,这在文献[10-11]中有所涉及。

      在多用户[12]多天线FDD下行系统中,由于基站端包含了所有用户信息,因此必然会产生多用户干扰(Multiple User Interference,MUI)。通过基站发送训练序列,假设在用户端接收到训练序列后,用户经下行信道能准确估计出该信道状态信息,再通过上行信道反馈回基站,基站利用接收端信道状态信息,使用相应的预编码方式进行传输。然而,在反馈过程中,由于误差的存在,比如信道量化、信道反馈产生的误差,系统得到的用户信道状态信息是不完善的,即使经过预编码处理,用户间的干扰也难以完全消除,并且随着用户数的增加,用户间的干扰也会增大,导致系统误码率增大以及容量降低。为了克服这一缺陷,本文结合预编码和空时编码技术[13-16]提出了新的发送方式,即在相干时间内通过多次发送,使得同一信号通过不同的信道抵达接收端。为了达到系统容量,在发送方式上提供完全增益的空时码,即Alamouti正交空时码[17-18],能有效处理用户间干扰且能达到系统容量。在基站端,各用户经预编码选择准则选出各自对应的预编码向量。在基站获取用户的预编码向量后,需在基站端广播一次,使得所有用户的预编码向量对各用户均是透明的。在接收方利用最大似然(Maximum Likelihood,ML)解码方式,而当发送的信号具有正交性时[19],可通过转化以降低解码复杂度。

      1 系统模型

      系统模型见图1。假定系统基站端发送天线数为M,用户数为K,且均为单天线用户。假设基站端到用户端之间是平坦瑞利慢衰落信道,相干时间不小于T,用户[i]接收信号可表示为:

      式(3)右边第一项是用户[i]需要的信息,第二项是用户间的干扰,第三项是噪声。

      2 有限反馈预编码及解码

      传统传输方案往往把其它用户的信息当成干扰处理,这样随着用户数的增加干扰也会加大,导致系统性能下降。本文结合预编码技术与空时码技术,提出了一种能充分利用其他用户信息进行传输的方式。

      2.1 预编码码本设计及预编码选择

      3 仿真分析

      为验证本文方案性能,对预编码技术和空时码发送方式进行仿真,在多用户多天线FDD下行系统中,每个用户的反馈比特数均为B=4bits,以系统的容量及误码率为指标评价方案的优劣。

      仿真一 图2显示了用户均为单天线的情况下K=2、3,M=4的容量,从图中可以看出,传统的发送方式下随着信噪比不断增大,信号和干扰的能量同时增大,故容量先增大然后趋于平稳。而在本文提出的发送方案1和方案2的情况下,随着信噪比增大,容量也增大。

      仿真二 图3显示在用户均为单天线的情况下K=2、3,M=4的误码率仿真曲线。在传统的发送方式下,为保证比特速率相同,即发送1次时采用4-QAM传送2bits,在发送方案一中,利用Alamouti正交空时码发送2次,采用16-QAM传送了4bits;在发送方案二中,利用循环矩阵发送3次,采用64-QAM传送了6bits。在这几种不同的发送方式下,传送率均为2比特pcu(每使用一次信道所能传送的比特数)。从仿真图可以看出,基于传统的传输方案因用户间干扰的存在,随着信噪比的增大其误码率难以下降,但在本文发送方案一和方案二的情况下,随着信噪比的增大,码率减小。

      仿真三 图4在用户数一定的情况下进行,用户数K=3。该仿真分为三组,第一组是在反馈比特数相同的情况下改变基站端的天线数。仿真结果表明,随着基站端天线数的增加,误码率反而越大。第二组是在基站端天线数相同的情况下改变反馈比特数。仿真结果表明,随着反馈比特数的增大误码率越小。第三组是在基站端天线数和反馈比特数比值一定的情况下进行仿真,结果表明在比值一定时,基站端天线数越大误码率越小。并且这个比值越大,误码率就越小,这个比值越小,误码率反而越大。   4 結语

      针对单天线多用户多天线FDD下行系统,为充分利用用户间的干扰信道信息,结合预编码与空时编码技术,本文提出了一种新的传输方案及相应的解码方式,实现了将用户间干扰转化成信道增益功能,保持了线性解码复杂度。数值仿真结果表明,本文给出的发送方案使系统在误码率和容量上的性能均有所提升,系统的传送符号率有所下降。不足之处是当每个用户天线数多于一根时未给出相应的解决方案。因此,如何在用户天线数为多根时研究其传送方案及解码方式,是下一步研究内容。

    多用户多天线FDD下行系统中空时码研究

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