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    浅谈悲剧《俄狄浦斯王》的美学特征

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    时间:2019-03-29

    浅谈悲剧《俄狄浦斯王》的美学特征

      古希腊悲剧作家索福克勒斯的《俄狄浦斯王》,被公认为希腊悲剧代表作,被亚里士多德称为是“十全十美的悲剧”。整部剧笼罩在一片静穆中,像命运的钟摆一下下敲击着人的灵魂,最终走向既定的结局,而喷涌而来的矛盾与冲突――杀父娶母,遗祸城邦,及其连带而来的“怜悯与恐惧”,在最后俄狄浦斯刺瞎双眼,以自责洗清自己的过错后,归于和解,达到了彻底的净化。为何这部悲剧能带给人如此强烈的审美经验?本文将从三个层面审视其美学特征,来找寻答案。

      一、悲剧性对象是有价值的生命

      悲剧在人物塑造上往往具有其非常性质,往往超出一般人之上,像普罗米修斯,是半人半神的;像希波吕托斯,具有格外高尚的品格;像麦克白,虽然是坏人,却有极大的意志力量。在《俄狄浦斯王》中的俄狄浦斯同样具有非常性质,他出身高贵,拥有非凡的智慧,性格刚毅勇敢,他是忒拜城的救世主,破解了狮身人面怪兽的谜语,解救了忒拜。在往后十几年中,他以英明伟大的君主形象统治着忒拜。而当忒拜城遭受瘟疫,其更是一心要解救他的城邦于困苦之中,不顾一切地追查凶手,要为城邦清除污染,可以说是集人类理想的出众品质于一身。

      就是这样伟大崇高的君王,遭受的却是最残酷的命运,他不顾一切要为城邦清除的污染正是他自身。一直以来尽力避免逃避的宿命最终还是找上了他,他在无意间杀父娶母,酿成了无法挽回的罪恶。当真相大白时,曾经被宙斯的祭司称为“我邦的君王”,将祭坛称为“你的祭坛”,被视为与天神平起平坐的俄狄浦斯,成为了“最可怜的”、“为天神所憎恨”的人。

      而戏剧的观众或者是读者目睹了整个过程,目睹萦绕在他身上的宿命逐渐浮出水面,充斥着观众或者是读者的是一种强烈的悲剧快感,是对主人公悲剧命运的心灵震颤。同时真正拨动他们内心最敏感神经的东西,是悲剧性对象身上闪烁着的熠熠生辉的悲剧精神。俄狄浦斯一直在奋力反抗,不停地逃避这个神谕告诉他的可怕命运,在竭力避免杀父娶母的宿命。但他的孝心、他的反抗适得其反, 使他一步步走向了宿命,最终却在胜利中失败了。但即便是如此,俄狄浦斯以更为崇高的精神重生:他为了自己更为了民众不惜追查出自己就是凶手的可怕事实, 更放逐了自己,他勇于面对残酷现实的精神和他永不放弃的反抗精神, 震撼人心, 给人以面对现实的勇气和激励,这成就了他的涅?重生。正是这种抗争本身才使得悲剧性具有伟大的意义,而英雄气概也正产生于这种对命运的抗争。

      二、悲剧性在激烈的社会冲突中得以表现

      悲剧性作品艺术地揭示的正是人类生活中必然存在的人与自然、人与社会、人与自身的各种冲突,悲剧性情节就是在激烈的、复杂的矛盾冲突中逐一展开的。冲突是悲剧性作品重要的特征之一,可以说,没有激烈的冲突就没有悲剧性。

      在《俄狄浦斯王》中冲突的双方自然是俄狄浦斯和命运,但双方各自的有其合理性和片面性,并构成了难以调和的矛盾。这部剧的前因是拉伊俄斯(俄狄浦斯之父)诱拐佩洛普斯之子克律西波斯出走,不料他出走不久就自杀了,为此佩洛普斯诅咒拉伊俄斯不得好报,天神宙斯给予拉伊俄斯被自己儿子杀死的命运以示惩罚。从单方面来宙斯因拉伊俄斯的错误而给予他惩罚是合理的;作为一个勇敢智慧的人,俄狄浦斯的存在也是合理的。但宙斯的片面性在于他通过俄狄浦斯这个无辜的人来惩罚拉伊俄斯,而俄狄浦斯的片面性在于他是拉伊俄斯的儿子。这样,就形成了一种不可调和的矛盾冲突,正是这样伦理道德双方的“冲突论”,使得该剧悲剧意义深远,同时也奠定了俄狄浦斯毁灭的必然性。

      俄狄浦斯的骇人命运是神定的,其最大的悲剧在于不相信命运的神力,想用个人的意志对抗命运,因而免不了个人的失败和毁灭。这无疑激发了人们对其命运的怜悯,及其连带的恐惧。因为其悲剧不在于他弑父娶母,而在于他的不知情。他不过是上帝手上的一枚棋子,早已定好命格。那些所谓的如果,看似惊险,可以避免,而实际上都无法避免。这样的安排激发了人们对宿命的恐惧――即便拼尽全力,在万能的神面前也无济于事。

      但正是因为此,才张显了俄狄浦斯的伟大――“其对被预定本质的否定”。在命运面前,他始终是反抗者的姿态,甚至说其反抗命运是存在先于本质。他始终试图去牢牢把握自己的命运,在与强大命运抗争的过程中体现了作为一个人的尊严和勇气。他的这种勇于同命运作斗争,并且在公众面前为自己承担责任的举动是人对“主体性”的追求,是人的生命激情的迸发。

      正是主人公毁灭的必然性和其对被预定本质的否定、对强大命运的反抗使整部剧的于伦理道德双方的“冲突论”中绽放出人性的光辉,激起人类情感的共鸣和升华,从而促进人类在历史道路上的前进。

      三、悲剧性的结局是在否定中肯定有价值的生命

      车尔尼雪夫斯基认为:“悲剧是人的伟大的痛苦,或者是伟大人物的灭亡。”在《俄狄浦斯王》中是极端的被否定的结局,甚至被西方称为“大流血”的结局。

      在真相面前,皇后也就是俄狄浦斯的亲生母亲选择了自杀,俄狄浦斯则刺杀了自己的双眼,踏上了自我放逐的道路。他没有逃避也没有祈望得到原谅,这最后的一搏将他反抗命运的壮举发展到了极致。如果说俄狄浦斯此前的所有选择,事实上也是为命运所趋使,而自惩则是一次完全自主的行动。其最终以血的代价换取了人的尊严,赢得了真实的自我。

      同时,自惩也是俄狄浦斯作为一个具有理性的人的体现。“我的罪恶除了自我担当以外,别人是不会沾染的。”尽管“弑父杀母”是他无意中犯下的罪过,他却勇于承担。这不仅仅是为自己,也是为了他人,为了城邦。就像他做了国王而面对瘟疫一样,“你们每个人都只为自己悲哀,不为旁人;我的悲痛同时是为了城邦,为自己,也为你们”。这种对责任的自觉承担,这种大无畏的牺牲精神再一次深深震撼了观众。“‘这个恐怖是我的,’他喊道,‘除我之外无人能有足够的力量来承受它’。”俄狄浦斯以巨大的勇气面对了真实的自我,以自责洗清了罪孽,成为了依靠自我力量的“人”的典型。

      俄狄浦斯的行为是悲壮的,又是高贵的,他无辜地承受着命运的打击,面对不可改变的命运仍奋起抗争,捍卫人的尊严与荣誉,这是“知其不可为而为”的大无畏英雄气概,体现了人性的伟大和崇高。正是他令人感动的崇高态度,使他的生命从废墟中折射出光芒和价值,也深深感动了众人,使人们从结局的否定中肯定了他和他精神的价值。

      《俄狄浦斯王》是一部不朽的经典之作,其艺术魅力跨越千年仍熠熠生辉。但时至今日《俄狄浦斯王》仍是一部充满不确定性的悲剧,其美学特征绝不是仅从三个层面就可说尽的。但从这三个方面分析其美学特征也算是管中窥豹,于这一瞥中领略了这部不朽的经典之作的美学艺术。

    浅谈悲剧《俄狄浦斯王》的美学特征

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